CAN MITOCHONDRIAL DNA PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ETHNOGENESIS OF CHILEAN NATIVE POPULATIONS?
¿PUEDE EL ADN MITOCONDRIAL PROPORCIONAR INFORMACIÓN SOBRE LA ETNOGÉNESIS DE LOS PUEBLOS ORIGINARIOS CHILENOS?
Francisco Rothhammer, Giannina Puddu y Macarena Fuentes-Guajardo
Despite efforts made by numerous researchers, existing knowledge about the origin of the majority of Chilean ethnic populations continues to be fragmentary and partially contradictory. Our aim is to contribute to the clarification of this important aspect of Chilean history, from the perspective of historical genetics. We first examine the variation of pan-American haplogroups of mitochondrial DNA (A, B, C and D) in five natural regions of continental Chile: Norte Grande (Far North), Norte Chico (Near North), Central Zone, Southern Zone and Southernmost Zone. When evaluating the distribution of men and women of American ancestral origin, the predominance of women over men is noticeable. In contrast, when the gender distribution of individuals of European ancestral origin is analyzed, male predominance is consistently observed. Next we calculated genetic distances between representatives of different ethnic groups of the southern cone of South America, the natural regions of Chile and mixed populations of Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Argentina. As expected, genetic distances indicate proximity between Quechua, Aymara, and Atacameño and the Norte Grande, and between Pehuenche, Mapuche, Huilliche, Tehuelche, Alacalufe, Yagan and Ona and the Southern and Southernmost Zone. In addition, displacements of groups and population mixing involving the Amazon, Central Andes and Argentina are revealed, contributing to a clearer understanding of the geographical origin of Chilean ethnic groups.
Continue Reading - PDF
ASSESSMENT OF AN EAST-WEST PHENOTYPIC VARIATION IN BODY HEIGHT, BODY FORM AND BODY MASS AMONG PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF PATAGONIA AND TIERRA DEL FUEGO, CHILE
EVALUACIÓN DE LA VARIACIÓN FENOTÍPICA DEL PESO, LA FORMA Y LA MASA CORPORAL EN GRUPOS CAZADORES-RECOLECTORES PREHISTÓRICOS DE PATAGONIA Y TIERRA DEL FUEGO, CHILE
Marta Alfonso-Durruty, Bretton T. Giles, Manuel San Román, and Flavia Morello
Fuego-Patagonia’s marine and terrestrial groups were historically described as phenotypically distinct but, studies of these phenotypic differences have yet to be conducted. This study evaluates phenotypic variation in Fuego-Patagonia. Phenotypic disparities result from extrinsic and intrinsic factors and therefore can reveal differences in both long and short term adaptations as well as genetic differences. Fifty-one adults were assessed. A total of six post-cranial measurements were included: maximum length of the humerus (MHL); maximum length of the radius (MRL); Bicondylar length of the femur (BFL); Maximum length of the tibia (MTL); bi-iliac breadth (BIB), and; antero-posterior diameter of the femoral head (FHD). Brachial index, crural index, body mass, body mass index and stature were then calculated. In general, terrestrial individuals had longer lower limb bones and were the tallest and heaviest. Marine individuals had the shortest bones and were shorter and lighter. Mixed-economy individuals showed mostly intermediate values. The trends are more marked in males than in females. The results suggests the presence of an east-to-west phenotypic gradient in the region that may have resulted from intrinsic and/or extrinsic differences between the groups. But, the sample size of this study is small, and thus the results should be cautiously considered.
Continue Reading - PDF